The HDAWG-MF Multi-Frequency option enhances the amplitude modulation capabilities of the HDAWG multi-channel Aribtrary Waveform Generator. The options gives access to faster waveform upload and higher flexibility in tuning carrier frequencies. This is particularly useful for applications that require many superimposed carrier frequencies.
- 4 digital oscillators per AWG channel pair instead of 1
- Individual frequencies up to 750 MHz
- Output adder for advanced modulation: digital I/Q, phase, amplitude, frequency
- Independent envelopes for separate carriers on 1 channel: phase cycling, frequency-domain multiplexing
HDAWG-MF upgrade and compatibility
- Field-upgradeable option
- Compatible with all other HDAWG options
The HDAWG-MF option reduces waveform upload time and increases flexibility in multi-frequency applications where rapid frequency changes are required. Using digital oscillators to generate the carriers instead of programming them into the waveform memory has many advantages: frequencies can be changed rapidly without reprogramming the memory, pulse envelopes can be used multiple times in long patterns, and envelope signals can be generated at significantly lower sampling rates than the carrier in narrow-band applications such as NMR.
The HDAWG-MF option includes 3 additional oscillators per channel pair and an Oscillator Selector, so that it is possible to connect any of the oscillators to any AWG envelope signal. With the Output Adder, the HDAWG-MF enables free linear combination of all modulated signals on the 2 wave signal outputs of a given channel pair (there are 4 or 8 wave outputs in total depending on the model variant). Thanks to the advanced modulation mode, the envelope signals for all 4 carriers can be programmed independently and added up on one output.
In the absence of the HDAWG-MF option, one oscillator is permanently connected to the two wave signal outputs associated with it. This configuration is suitable for generating an I/Q signal pair for external frequency up-conversion. When the option is installed, signals with many arbitrary frequencies can be generated using sample-by-sample waveform programming in plain output mode.
- Trapped-ion quantum computing
- NMR and EPR spectroscopy
A digital oscillator is a digital sine wave generator based on direct digital synthesis (DDS) technology. Its frequency is a high-resolution fractional multiple of the instrument's clock frequency.
When the signal to be generated contains parts with a sinusoidal component, the use of digital oscillators can sometimes save on waveform upload time. For example:
- When the carrier signal is incommensurate with the repetition period of the envelope.
- When there are multiple carriers with incommensurate periods.
- When the carrier frequency or phase needs to be adjusted frequently.
- When the signal contains very long bursts.
In such cases, the LabOne AWG Sequencer provides you with the tools to minimize waveform memory:
- By using one or few pulse envelope waveforms repeatedly.
- By using a reduced sampling rate for the envelope signal.
- By avoiding waveform upload in favor of a fast and simple change of the oscillator frequency or phase.
Digital I/Q modulation is the realization of the following combination of digital signals:
I(t) cos(ωt) - Q(t) sin(ωt)
Here, I(t) and Q(t) are waveform signals generated by the AWG, and cos(ωt) and sin(ωt) are signals generated by a digital oscillator running at angular frequency ω. Digital I/Q modulation enables full control of a carrier's amplitude and phase over time.
Yes. All these modulation schemes require partial control of a carrier's amplitude and phase, or equivalently its in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) component. Digital I/Q modulation with each of the quadratures independently defined by a waveform from the AWG provides full freedom to realize any analog (FM, AM, PM) or digital (PSK, QPSK, ...) modulation technique within the bandwidth of the D/A conversion stage.
Yes, the Sequencer on the instrument can vary the frequency with low latency (< 100 ns) and deterministic timing.