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Efficient Generation of Dynamic Pulses


Solid-state qubits are typically characterized and operated by a series of very short pulses. To achieve a high-fidelity control, it is necessary to generate many sequences of them, with very accurate timing. In this blog post, I will show how to use the advanced feature set of the HDAWG Arbitrary...

Bell-State Stabilization of Superconducting Qubits with Real-Time Feedback


Bell-state stabilization with real-time feedback is a key milestone for the implementation of surface code [1], which is one of the most promising quantum error correction codes for building large-scale quantum computers [2]. Fundamental requirements for realizing this code are high fidelity and rapid readout of qubits, high fidelity gate...

Choosing the Best Current Input Range for Impedance Measurements



Auto-ranging is one of the key features of all impedance analyzers. It makes it possible to run a sweep (of frequency, AC amplitude, DC bias, or other parameters of interest) continuously and without manual adjustments of the input ranges. This helps particularly when working with reactive components, whose impedance changes...



MFIA Impedance Analyzer

2021年9月23日,苏黎世仪器举办了一场网络研讨会:“即来自瑞士的顶尖阻抗分析仪: 快速和低速测量两相宜”。此研讨会包含了两部分内容。其一就是直流支撑电容器的ESR和ESL的测试,我们重点讲述了如何通过智能用户补偿,实现低至mOhm和nH数量级的微笑阻抗的测试。其二则为深能级动态能谱检测(DLTS)。在这一部分中,我们展示了如何使用MFIA在us的时间尺度内,测到半导体器件中fF级别电容的变化。我们希望借本次研讨会之际,能与您展开更为深入的交流。

Un'architettura LabVIEW per costruire sistemi DLTS con lo MFIA


MFIA configuration

Questo blog post descrive un codice basato su LabVIEW™ per utilizzare l'analizzatore di impedenza MFIA per effetturare misure di spettroscopia transitoria di livello profondo (DLTS), compreso un template per aggiungere il controllo di un termoregolatore di terze parti. La DLTS è una tecnica potente e comunemente usata per studiare la...

The LabOne Multi-Device Synchronization Feature


Configuration to measure the Hall effect using 2 MFLI Lock-in Amplifiers synchronized with MDS.

In this blog post we want to present a lesser known but very powerful LabOne® tool freely available to all Zurich Instruments users: multi-device synchronization (MDS). Although all Zurich Instruments lock-ins and impedance analyzers are equipped with multiple demodulators either natively or through upgrade options, and most instruments have multiple...

Impedance Characterization of Wearable Capacitive Sensors



This blog post explains how the Zurich Instruments MFIA can be used to characterise wearable capacitive sensors, and introduces two recently published studies where innovative flexible wearable sensors have been developed which operate on the principle of capacitive sensing. These studies present different approaches to comfortable-to-wear sensors with sensing performance...

Noise Spectral Density Measured with Lock-in Amplifiers


Input Noise

Proper noise characterization is essential in many applications, especially when dealing with tiny signals buried in noise like in nanotechnology, photonics and quantum physics. Noise characteristics of a system are often represented by the noise spectral density in amplitude or power mode, the latter being called power spectral density (PSD), within the frequency range of interest...

A LabVIEW Template for Building DLTS Systems with the MFIA


MFIA configuration

This blog post describes how to get started with writing a LabVIEW™ code to control the MFIA Impedance Analyzer for DLTS measurements. It also includes ideas for independent code for the control of a third-party temperature controller. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is a powerful and commonly used technique to...

Loudspeaker Impedance Measurements


audio fig1

Loudspeakers are electroacoustic transducers that convert electrical signals into acoustic ones. They are commonly found in our daily lives. One of the most frequently used types, known as an electrodynamic loudspeaker, functions by the movement of a cone membrane (diaphragm). When AC electrical signals are sent to the voice coil...

DLTS User Meeting 2021 – Q&A


DLTS User Meeting Banner

Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is a powerful and commonly used technique to investigate the concentration and carrier binding energy of semiconductor defects by measuring capacitance transients at different temperatures. As such, it is a critical tool for the characterization of all forms of semiconductors. As an enabler of various...

How to Characterize Magnetic Materials With Lock-in Amplifiers



In this webinar we covered two basic magnetic characterization techniques, the vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and AC susceptibility where lock-in amplifiers are essential part of the measurement and the detection chain. We teamed up with Yury Bugoslavsky, who is managing VSM products at Cryogenic Ltd...



Nyquist Plot


Low-Frequency DLTS of Perovskite Solar Cells



Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is a powerful and commonly used technique to investigate the concentration and carrier binding energy of defects in semiconductors. The technique involves measuring capacitance transients at different temperatures, typically at 1 MHz. However, DLTS can also be carried out at lower frequencies such as 80...

Interdigitated Electrode Sensors for Liquid Measurements



In previous blog posts, we demonstrated conductivity and permittivity measurements of liquids using the MFIA Impedance Analyzer. To reach the best accuracy, the measurements were carried out using immersion probes or dielectric fixtures with a precisely defined electrode area and spacing. This step is important as any error in the...

Impedance Measurements with Small Amplitude Test Signals


Scope showing bit resolution

When taking an impedance measurement, the test signal amplitude can often be a factor that needs to be minimized to avoid unnecessarily disturbing the sample under test. This blog post presents measurements showing how even small test signals of just 500 nV can be used to take a reliable impedance...

Taking Dielectric Measurements to the Liquid State


The MFIA Impedance Analyzer is connected to a third-party liquid dielectric test fixture

Liquid dielectrics are dielectric materials in a liquid state and are widely used in electrical insulation as well as cooling. Nonetheless, their fluidity also makes accurate dielectric measurements a challenge. In a previous blog post, we saw how to measure solid-state materials with the MFIA Impedance Analyzer and a pair...

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