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Displaying Nyquist Plots on the MFIA Impedance Analyzer


Frequency Arrow

Nyquist plots are a key tool when displaying complex impedance data. They display the real part of the signal on the X-axis against the imaginary part on the Y-axis. Each point on the plot represents a different frequency. The MFIA (and the MFLI with the MF-IA option) can display impedance...

LCR Meter vs Impedance Analyzer


Numeric Tab

We are often asked about the difference between LCR meters and impedance analyzers, especially given that the MFIA Impedance Analyzer combines the functionalities of both instruments. LCR meters and impedance analyzers are fundamentally similar, in that they both measure impedance parameters such as capacitance, inductance and resistance.They achieve this by...

SPM User Meeting in Mainz


Daniel's Tutorial

It was an honor and privilege to host our first SPM User Meeting in Mainz this year in the group of Prof. Angelika Kuehnle. This two-day gathering was a time for intense knowledge sharing among Zurich Instruments' users with invited talks, tutorials in smaller groups and a poster session. Invited...

Teraohm Impedance Measurements with the MFIA Impedance Analyzer


TeraOhm Measurement

Introduction This blog post describes impedance measurements of a 1 TΩ commercially-available resistor using the MFIA Impedance Analyzer. This further demonstrates how the MFIA can accurately measure challenging components with very high impedance. Thanks to a clear reactance chart, MFIA users know what accuracy they can expect starting from the...

Noise Analysis of Signal Components


Noise PSD

In this blog post, we investigate the relation between the noise of signal amplitude and phase on one hand, and the noise of in-phase and quadrature components of the signal on the other hand. We try to respond to the wrong intuition stating that the standard deviation of signal amplitude is higher than the standard deviation of each signal components...

RF Reflectometry Measurements of Quantum Dots


Coulomb Diamonds

Characterizing semiconductor spin qubits with radio-frequency (RF) reflectometry offers a speed advantage over low-frequency conductance measurements thanks to insensitivity to 1/f noise. In this blog post, the measurements of Josip Kukučka and his colleagues...

Compensating Delay-Induced Phase Shifts for High-Frequency Resonators


Compensation Delay Schematic

Phase-locked loops (PLL) or other PID controllers on nano-mechanical resonators rely on clean phase signals that exhibit large slope, or significant phase shift, around the resonance frequency. For really high-frequency NEMS and opto-mechanical systems above a few tens or hundreds of MHz, any small delay can have significant effect on...

Time-Domain Response of Lock-in Filters


Impulse Response

The heart of a lock-in amplifier is a phase-sensitive detector that includes a signal mixer and a low-pass filter. In this blog post, we focus on the time response of the low-pass filters implemented in the Zurich Instruments lock-in amplifiers including the MFLI, the HF2LI and the UHFLI...

The Nyquist Diagram for Electrical Circuits



Introduction The Nyquist diagram of a transfer function is a parametric plot of its imaginary part versus real part as the frequency sweeps in a certain range [1]. When dealing with electric circuits, the transfer function is the immittance [2] of the circuit, i.e. it can be either the impedance...

Frequency Response Measurement with Chirps and Leakage-Free FFT


Good Chirp Setup

Introduction This post explains how to measure the frequency response of a component or system with high spectral resolution in a minimum amount of time. Rather than sweeping the frequency and recording each spectral point individually, the approach presented here is based on a fast and continuous change of the...

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