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What is the Basic Accuracy of an Impedance Analyzer?


Reactance Chart

This blog post explains the meaning of basic accuracy when referring to impedance analyzers. The accuracy of an impedance analyzer is a critical parameter that allows the user to know how close the measured impedance will be to the true impedance of the device or sample under test. As the...

Automated 2D Impedance Sweeps on the MFIA


MFIA with DUT attached

Many devices and materials exhibit an impedance which depends on both frequency and other parameters such as bias voltage. To fully characterize the impedance of these samples requires an impedance analyzer with the ability to sweep in two dimensions. The MFIA (and MFLI with MF-IA option) can be easily controlled via any of the five included APIs to open up the full parameter space of impedance analysis...

Connecting the MFLI to an External Signal Generator


The Setup

This blog post describes how to use the MFLI Lock-in Amplifier with an external reference frequency. The reference frequency comes from a signal generator Model 6221 from Keithley which is used to apply higher voltage pulses or sinusoidal signals on the sample. In some situations the MFLI can be used...



Overview Sweep

直流支撑电容器(DC-link 电容器)本身和接口的ESL和ESR对绝缘栅双极晶体管(IGBT)开关模组的性能有着很大的影响。当IGBT模组关闭时,瞬时产生的电压浪涌会储存在寄生电感之中。为了降低或者消除此电压浪涌的影响,设计低ESL的直流支撑电容器至关重要。在本文中,我们将使用MFIA阻抗分析仪和专用的低ESL阻抗测试夹具来验证标称的器件参数。

Bringing Together the SPM Community in Zurich


SPM Usermeeting Group Picture

"Jamais 2 sans 3" as the French say, where number 3 worked as a charm. We were able to host the third SPM User Meeting in our home city and brought together more users than ever before to share their experiences with Zurich Instruments! Scanning probe microscopy is a broad...



Supercaps overview


Frequency-Domain Response of Lock-in Filters


Theoretical Frequency Response

Introduction The response of a lock-in amplifier is characterized by the parameters of its low-pass filter (LPF), i.e., time constant and filter order. The temporal response of the LPF demonstrates the latency of measurement while its spectral response shows the noise characteristics of measured signals. This blog post explains how...

Gated Data Transfer for Increased Data Sampling Rate


Plotter Overview

Introduction For measurements of signals that change rapidly, for example, when measuring capacitance transients in deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), high temporal resolution is required. In its standard operating configuration, the MFIA (or the MFLI with the MF-IA option) can sample and transfer impedance data at a continuous rate of...

Square pulses for DLTS Measurements on the MFIA



Introduction This blog post shows how to produce square voltage pulses and capture the resulting capacitance transients on a short timescale (20 us), for example, for deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. Using the LabOne® Threshold Unit (which comes as a standard with the MFIA), it's possible to produce square...

Rapid and Accurate C-V Measurements on the MFIA



Fast C-V measurements up to 3000 V/s This blog post demonstrates the ability of the MFIA (also MFLI with MF-IA option) to measure capacitance on a short timescale (20 us) as a function of DC bias voltage, for example, for fast capacitance-voltage profiling measurements. Voltage sweeps of up to 3000...

How to Demodulate Multi-frequency Signals such as AM, FM and PM


Tandem Modulation

Introduction When analyzing signals with multiple frequency components, it is important to measure the amplitude and phase of each frequency component accurately so that a change in the characteristics of one component does not affect the measurement of another frequency component. There are two different approaches to multi-frequency signal demodulation...

Generation of Single-Sideband Modulation by Arbitrary Waveform Generators


SSB modulation Scheme

Introduction I/Q modulations are extensively used in a variety of applications including telecommunications, quantum computing (QC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and band-excitation atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this post, we demonstrate how to generate such signals using Arbitrary Waveform Generators from Zurich Instruments with an...

Formation sur les Techniques KFM à Grenoble


Resume des modes KPFM

Pour la seconde année consécutive, le réseau RéMiSoL, avec le soutien du CEA LETI, de l’IEMN et de partenaires industriels (NanoAndMore, Zurich Instruments), a proposé une action nationale de formation (ANF) CNRS le 7 et 8 novembre sur le thème de la microscopie à sonde de Kelvin (KFM, ou parfois...

Protecting Your Setup From High Voltage Peaks


Overvoltage protection

This blog post describes how a setup can be protected from overvoltage that occurs when switching off a coil. Fast changing currents induce transient voltages in an inductive load which can be expressed by the formula: V = - L (dI/dt) L is the inductance in Henry and dI/dt is...

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