MFIA Key Features
- DC to 5 MHz, 1 mΩ to 1 TΩ
- 0.05% basic accuracy at a rate of 20 ms per data point
- LabOne Sweeper for frequency, bias voltage, and test signal amplitude response measurements
- Compensation Advisor and Confidence Indicator for accurate measurements
- 25 s start-up time and high repeatability
- LabOne APIs for C, MATLAB®, LabVIEW®, Python
- Full MFLI lock-in amplifier functionality: dynamic measurements with time constants from 336 ns to 83 s
- Life Sciences: Tissue impedance analysis, Single cell impedance spectroscopy (multi-frequency)
- Electrochemistry: Batteries, Fuel cells, Corrosion
- Electrical Engineering: Semiconductor wafer structures, Solar Cells, LED and LCD testing
- Material Research: Quantum transport, Ceramics / Composites, Nanostructure characterization
- Others: Scanning Capacitance Microscopy, Food research, MEMS sensors
MFIA Q & A
- Are there different hardware configurations available?
- No, all MF series instruments are based on the same hardware. Variations are firmware and software based and can be upgraded at any time later in the field.
- Do I need a PC to run the instrument?
- The MFIA has an embedded web server and can be connected to a local network where it can be accessed from any web browser by opening the address "http://mf-dev3XXX", where 3XXX stands for the serial number.
- Does the MFIA achieve 0.05% accuracy over the entire frequency and measurement range?
- No. Please see the reactance chart below for a detailed specification of accuracy over the entire ranges.
- How many demodulators are inside the MFIA?
- The basic MFIA has 2 fully configurable demodulators. The MF-MD option extends that to a total of 4 demodulators.
- How does the MFIA impedance analyzer relate to the MFLI lock-in amplifier?
- The MFIA impedance analyzer and the MFLI lock-in amplifier with the MF-IA option installed are technically the same instruments. The only differences is the front panel and the organization of the user interface (e.g. ordering of the application icons).
- How can I connect the MFIA to my setup?
- Every MFIA impedance analyzer is shipped with an MFITF test fixtures and 12 carriers. For customers with existing setups and test fixtures: the main connector spacing (22 mm) is fully compatible with most of the accessories from other vendors.
Front panel interface
The front panel of the MFLI features 1 current signal input, 1 differential voltage input, 1 differential signal output, 2 auxiliary inputs that can work as reference inputs, and 4 auxiliary outputs. Both signal inputs and outputs can be operated in single-ended and differential mode for experiments that require extra immunity from noise disturbances. The signal ground can be referenced either to the instrument ground or the BNC shield of the signal inputs.
Back panel interface
The back panel offers more BNC connectors comprising 2 trigger inputs, 2 trigger outputs and 1 input and 1 output for 10 MHz clock synchronization. Moreover, a SCSI connector offers access to all DIO channels. The units can be operated with standard 90 - 240 V mains supply or by an external 12 V DC power supply, e.g. from an external battery pack, in order to break up ground loops.
High repeatability, fast start-up
Temperature changes of the instrument can severely limit start-up speed and measurement repeatability. The MFIA performs exceptionally well in both aspects as can be seen from the start-up drift graph shown above and the reactance chart at the bottom of the page. You can start the first measurements after only 25 s from powering on the instrument.
Test fixture and additional interfaces
The best measurement results can be obtained by using the MFITF Test Fixture. Both the test fixtures and the carriers are designed to introduce minimal parasitics and damping. However, the instrument is made to be fully compatible with other commercially available test fixtures and impedance setups. Auxiliary Outputs and Inputs provide and receive additional control signals to the DUT or analog feedback to other instrumentation. DIO connectors and Trigger ports enable measurement methods that require precise synchronization with other parts of the setup.
Voltage and current measurements
Voltage measurements and current measurements are both supported by the MFIA. The analog front-end features variable input impedance as well as AC/DC coupling selection and the high-frequency analog to digital sampling provides a large oversampling factor, ensuring superior lock-in performance and high signal fidelity for the Scope.
LabOne impedance tool set
The MFIA comes with LabOne instrument control software and runs an embedded data and web server that provide the graphical user interface to any web browser. Simply add the MFIA by ethernet into your local network or connect directly by USB, type the instrument address into your web browser, and you have access to the LabOne tool set. Data from each tool can be stored as vector graphics or a plain data file with a single mouse click. For further analysis in other software, ZView®, MATLAB® as well as customized CSV export file formats are supported. Basic cursor and statistical functions are available for an initial data analysis in time domain or frequency domain as well.
The Sweeper enables the user to automate measurements by scanning instrument parameters over a defined range with a freely adjustable number of scan steps, either linearly or logarithmically. Most importantly, the recording of frequency dependence as well as the variation of bias voltages or test signal amplitudes can be easily automated. A variety of application modes help the user to measure with the optimal settings and get the most accurate results in a minimum of measurement time without tedious manual tweaking.
The example above shows a frequency sweep from 100 Hz to 5 MHz of a 1 GΩ resistor in a dual-plot representation. The top plot shows the absolute value of the impedance |Z| and the resistance Rp. The bottom plot shows the measurement of the stray capacitance Cp staying constant at about 30 fF over the entire scan range. A free choice of additional parameters can be visualized at the same time.
The Numerical tool displays all measurement values and model parameters in a user configurable format. You can decide which parameters matter most and display only what is relevant for your work. Each impedance unit allows simultaneous viewing of the impedance value as well as the underlying current and voltage measurements plus the model based derived parameters (L,C,R, etc.).
Plotter and SW Trigger
The Plotter and Software Trigger are tools to analyze measurement data and model parameters in the time domain. The Plotter can display multiple data streams continuously. For a window length of 10 s the time resolution goes down to 10 μs. The Software Trigger captures and displays individual shots based on numerous different internal and external trigger conditions.
The LabOne Plotter displays your impedance data continuously. The plot above shows data from a 100 mΩ resistor over 20 min. The histogram indicates a standard deviation of only 6 µΩ
All measurement data pass a confidence estimation before being presented to the user in the different tools. Whenever the measurement is compromised by either suppression, gain error, compensation error, etc. a warning flag is raised and the user is informed that the data might be inaccurate. Depending on the type of warning, suggestions are made in order to improve the result.
In order to achieve high measurement accuracy, parasitic effects caused by the test fixture or cabling between the instrument and the device under test (DUT) need to be compensated. The LabOne Compensation Advisor provides users with step-by-step guidance and an efficient workflow to achieve maximum measurement performance. In addition to Short-Open (SO) and Short-Open-Load (SOL) compensation, a variety of other compensation schemes are offered. Each compensation step is validated and feedback provided to the user before the data is taken to correct for measurement errors.
MFIA and MF-IA Impedance Specification
Accuracy and measurement ranges
The reactance chart presented below indicates the instrument accuracy for certain frequency and impedance values. In the wide core area indicated in white, a 0.05% accuracy is specified between 10 Hz and 300 kHz, and 1 Ω and 1 MΩ (with limitations towards higher frequencies). The measurement range extends further with reduced specified accuracy of 0.1% and 1% to cover a measurement range from 10 mΩ to 1 GΩ. Even outside this range repeatable measurements are possible but accuracy might drop below 1%.
Measuring high impedances at low frequencies can be particularly challenging when values have to be obtained close to the line frequency. Adequate sample shielding along with a sinc-filter and the possibility for battery operation will give you the most accurate results.
|Dimensions||28.3 x 23.2 x 10.2 cm; 11.1 x 9.2 x 4 inch|
|Weight||3.8 kg; 8.4 lbs|
|Power supply||AC: 100 to 240 V; DC: 12 V, 2 A|
|Interface||USB 2.0, LAN 1GbE|
|Frequency range||DC to 5 MHz|
|Frequency resolution||1 µHz|
|Basic accuracy||0.05% (10 Hz to 500 kHz)|
|Basic temp. stability||200 ppm/K|
|Test signal level||0 V to 2.1 Vrms; incl. monitoring|
|Demodulator bandwidth||276 µHz to 206 kHz|
|DC bias signal level||2T: ±10 V, 4T: ±3 V|
|Compensation||SO, SOL, LLL, SL, L, OL|
Measurement parameters, range and typ. accuracy
|Impedance Z||1 mΩ to 1 TΩ, 0.05%|
|Admittance Y||1 pS to 1 kS, 0.05%|
|Voltage V||0 V to 3 V, 1%|
|Current I||0 mA to 10 mA, 2%|
|Phases ΘZ, ΘY, ΘV, ΘI||±180 deg, 10 µdeg res.|
|Resistance RS, RP||1 mΩ to 1 TΩ, max(10 µOhm, 0.05%) 1|
|Capacitance CS, CP||10 fF to 1 F, max(10 fF, 0.05%) 1|
|Inductance LS, LP||100 nH to 1 H, max(10 nH, 0.05%) 1|
|DC Resistance RDC||1 mΩ to 10 GΩ, 2%|
|Reactance X||1 mΩ to 1 TΩ, 0.05%|
|Conductance G, Susceptance B||1 nS to 1 kS, max(100 nS, 0.05%)|
|Loss coefficient D||10-4 to 10'000|
|Q factor||10-4 to 10'000|
1 Accuracy valid if parameter is the dominant value of the circuit representation.
|Sweep parameters||frequency, test signal amplitude, bias voltage, etc.|
|Sweep points||2 to 100'000|
|Sweep resolution||arbitrary, defined by start value, stop value and number of sweep points|
|Display parameters||ZX, ZY, Z, ZΘ, VX, VY, VR, VΘ, IX, IY, IR, IΘ, model parameter 1/2, frequency, Auxiliary Input|
|Display options||single plot, dual plot (e.g. for Bode plots), multitrace|
|Application modes||impedance, frequency response analyzer, 3-omega, etc.|
|Sweep modes||sequential, binary, bidirectional, reverse|
|Sweep step modes||linear, logarithmic|
|Sweep speed||20 ms/pt for f > 10 kHz|
Additional tools and features
|LabOne toolset||Numerical view, Spectrum Analyzer, Plotter, SW trigger, Oscilloscope|
|APIs||C, MATLAB, LabVIEW, Python|
|Confidence Indicator||suppression, compensation, overflow, underflow|
|Input range control||auto, impedance, manual|
|Test signal amplitude||auto, manual|
|Bandwidth control||auto, manual|
|Replacement circuit models||Rp||Cp, Rs+Cs, Rs+Ls, G-B, D-Cs, Q-Cs, D-Ls, Q-Ls|
|Test fixture compatibility||yes|
For additional details, please see the